Sony HDR-AS30V vs. ExFAT vs. Ext2 Times: Total Bafflement

I’d like to overlay a timestamp on still images extracted from Sony HDR-AS30V camera videos, ideally including the frame number, to record exactly when the incident occurred. Movie players use relative time, with 00:00:00 at the beginning of the file, so we’ll need either the file timestamp or the timestamp recorded in the image’s Exif data, plus the frame number modulo 60 (or, shudder, 59.94 for NTSC).

The ExFAT format used on 64 GB MicroSD cards stores the file’s creation time, its modification time (writing data), and the most recent access time (reading data). That’s similar to the Linux ext2/3/4 filesystem time and unlike plain old FAT, which omits the access time.

The various FAT formats store local time, with no regard for time zones, Daylight Saving Time, or anything else. Linux stores times as UTC and converts to local time on the fly. This has catastrophic consequences for getting any of this right.

It helps to have alias ls='ls -h --color=auto --time-style=long-iso' in your .bashrc file.

The HDR-AS30V has a year-month-day calendar, a 24-hour clock, a Time Zone value, and a separate DST on/off setting.

Turning DST on adds 1 hr to the Time Zone value, turning it off subtracts 1 hr. That has the side effect of changing the clock time: not what I expected. You must, therefore, set the TZ first, then DST, then the clock, which does not follow the menu’s natural order of things.

The camera sets file timestamps as it creates the files, but Linux also meddles with the values while displaying them. Some doc suggests that Linux regards FAT file timestamps as UTC and applies DST correction, which seems to match what I see. There’s a mount option (-o tz=UTC) that seems to have no effect, as well as an undocumented time offset (-o time_offset=60) that also has no effect.

Setting the TZ to GMT+0 (Sony uses GMT, not UTC) for simplicity, setting the clock to the correct local time, and twiddling DST shows that:

  • Rebooting (remove /insert battery) doesn’t change anything
  • Metadata in file = clock setting – DST setting (-1 on, +0 off)
  • MP4 / THM file create / modify times = always clock +1 hour
  • MP4 / THM file access times = as create / modify until next Linux access

Under those conditions, with the clock set to (locally accurate) 1908, UTC+1, and DST off, then the Exif timestamp metadata for a movie created at that time look like this:

exiftool /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00036.MP4 | grep -i date
File Modification Date/Time     : 2014:09:01 20:08:09-04:00
File Access Date/Time           : 2014:09:01 19:10:14-04:00
File Inode Change Date/Time     : 2014:09:01 20:08:09-04:00
Create Date                     : 2014:09:01 19:08:03
Modify Date                     : 2014:09:01 19:08:08
Track Create Date               : 2014:09:01 19:08:03
Track Modify Date               : 2014:09:01 19:08:08
Media Create Date               : 2014:09:01 19:08:03
Media Modify Date               : 2014:09:01 19:08:08

The corresponding filesystem values:

ll /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/
total 146M
... snippage ...
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root  14M 2014-09-01 20:08 MAH00036.MP4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root 8.5K 2014-09-01 20:08 MAH00036.THM

ll -c /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/
total 146M
... snippage ...
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root  14M 2014-09-01 20:08 MAH00036.MP4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root 8.5K 2014-09-01 20:08 MAH00036.THM

ll -u /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/
total 146M
... snippage ...
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root  14M 2014-09-01 19:10 MAH00036.MP4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root 8.5K 2014-09-01 20:08 MAH00036.THM

The THM file contains a 160×120 pixel JPG thumbnail image taken from the first frame of the corresponding MP4 file. For longer movies, it’s more obvious that the MP4 file creation date is the start of the movie and its modification date is the end. The maximum 4 GB file size of corresponds to exactly 22:43 of 1920×1080 movie @ 60 frame/sec (the metadata says 59.94).

The +1 hour offset in the file create / modify times comes from the FAT timestamp being (incorrectly) adjusted by the Linux DST setting. When exiftool reads the MP4 file, that resets its access time to the actual time as seen by Linux, thereby crushing the bogus FAT time.

Doing the seemingly sensible thing of setting the camera to have the correct local time (roughly 1930), the correct time zone, and the correct DST setting produces this jumble:

exiftool /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037.MP4 | grep -i date
File Modification Date/Time     : 2014:09:01 20:33:15-04:00
File Access Date/Time           : 2014:09:01 20:33:14-04:00
File Inode Change Date/Time     : 2014:09:01 20:33:15-04:00
Create Date                     : 2014:09:01 23:33:11
Modify Date                     : 2014:09:01 23:33:14
Track Create Date               : 2014:09:01 23:33:11
Track Modify Date               : 2014:09:01 23:33:14
Media Create Date               : 2014:09:01 23:33:11
Media Modify Date               : 2014:09:01 23:33:14

ll /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root  11M 2014-09-01 20:33 /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037.MP4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root 8.2K 2014-09-01 20:33 /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037.THM

ll -c /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root  11M 2014-09-01 20:33 /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037.MP4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root 8.2K 2014-09-01 20:33 /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037.THM

ll -u /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root  11M 2014-09-01 19:34 /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037.MP4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ed root 8.2K 2014-09-01 20:33 /mnt/part/MP_ROOT/100ANV01/MAH00037.THM

The only correct time in that mess is in the next-to-last line: the access time for the MP4 file. Every other timestamp comes out wrong, with the internal metadata values being off by +4 hours; that suggests the camera sets the internal timestamps to UTC.

As nearly as I can figure, the only way to make this work requires setting the clock to the local time, TZ to UTC+0, and DST off. That will screw up the filesystem timestamps, but at least the Exif metadata will be correct, for some value of correct.

The camera’s GPS receiver depends on the clock for its initial synchronization. I don’t know how the TZ and DST settings affect the clock’s correctness for that purpose.

I do not know if / how / when the displayed times have been altered by the programs that display them.

I think exiftool can extract the times from the internal metadata and fix up the filesystem times, but that’ll take more tinkering.

Sheesh & similar remarks…

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Monthly Science: Basement Safe vs. Summer Humidity

So much for sealing the basement safe door:



The desiccant definitely lasts longer during the winter, even though the humidifier fights the basement air to a standstill around 55%RH during the summer.

Each desiccant bag contains 500 g of silica gel and the most recent one adsorbed 73 g of water.

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Milkweed Tussock Moth

Although we no longer see Monarch butterflies, our milkweed patch attracts Milkweed Tussock Moth caterpillars:

Milkweed Tussock Caterpillar

Milkweed Tussock Caterpillar

This one apparently died on the patio step, half the house away from the milkweed patch, and the rear spines (on the right) have begun falling out. During the next week, I teleported two more from that step to the patch, under the assumption they’d be happier on a tasty leaf than on a slate slab.

They were all early instars, very short and quite fuzzy. Later instars will be much longer, with more distinct tussocks.

I wonder if you could shear them and use the “fur” for decoration? It wouldn’t spin into thread like wool, but someone, somewhere, has surely performed art with Tussock Caterpillar spines…


Real Estate Sale Signage

Real Estate Agencies used to post property marker signs like this:



Even far off to the side, a bright background color catches your eye:



The signs sported primary colors, reasonably large type, and simple words, making them almost readable in those pictures and definitely legible from the driver’s seat. While not particularly handsome or stylin’, they got the message across: this house is for sale.

Then a strange thing happened.

Berkshire Hathaway somehow got into the real estate business and Borged several of the local agencies. BH being a Name Brand with a connotation of wealth & taste, their branding imposed a subtle touch on the new signage:



No, you can’t quite read that in real life, either, although the agent’s name and number on the header come close to the old standard.

One day, a old-school sign appeared along one of our usual routes:



Although white and green don’t pop out of the background, the sign has enough contrast that you can read what’s needed.

Then they became affiliated with Christie’s, the Big Name in the realm of high-end auctions. I have no idea what Christie’s has to do with real estate, but if Berkshire Hathaway can do it, it seems Christie’s thinks they can do it even better.

In any event, the Christie’s Corporate Standard evidently calls for very, very subtle signage:


That sign might mark a high-end bed and breakfast, but certainly does not tell me that the place is for sale: none of the text approaches readability from the street, certainly not at normal travel speeds, and nothing about it even suggests that I should take action.

A few weeks later, two hang tags added a COMMERCIAL note (the property evidently has potential to become an office or retail space) and the agent’s name and phone number in minuscule type:



After a while, a very bright red do-it-yourself HOUSE FOR SALE placard suggested the property owner wasn’t entirely satisfied with the results to date:



The high-contrast black-on-white FOR SALE header definitely doesn’t match the rest of the sign, but its more legible information might motivate you to pause and puzzle out the rest. The red placard vanished a few days after the header appeared, leaving us with this peculiar mix:



None of the (numerous) Christie’s signs in the area have a header, so this may be a case of a squeaky wheel getting greased. I won’t be surprised to see a corporate image change, including larger type, as these fancy signs weather away.

Perhaps the correct conclusion to be drawn is that, in this Internet age, nobody buys a house based on the quaint custom of driving by a house-with-sign, thinking “Hey, that’s perfect for me!”, and calling the agent, so there’s no need for anything more than a pro-forma marker identifying a property that will be selected by filters applied to MLS / Zillow databases.

The most recent change simplifies the sign to the bare minimum:



Perhaps we’ve witnessed a falling-out over typography?

This began as a test of the Sony HDR-AS30V camera’s resolution, with the obvious conclusion it wasn’t intended as a camera suitable for recording text.


ET227 Transistor DC Current Gain Variation

A Squidwrench Weekly Doings being useful for short-attention-span projects, I measured the DC current gain for all five ET227 transistors. The test conditions fall far below the ET227’s 1 kV / 100 A ratings, but they’re roughly what the sewing machine motor controller calls for.

The transistors don’t even begin to turn on until IB gets over about 50 mA, because there’s a 13 Ω shunt resistor (as measured, for either polarity) between the base and emitter terminal:

Fuji ET227 - equivalent circuit

Fuji ET227 – equivalent circuit

In the ET227’s normal use, that resistor dumps the Miller effect charge injected from the collector (with the intent of improving the switching time), but you must ram nearly 70 mA into the resistor to get 900 mV at the base, so the actual transistor base current isn’t all that high for low collector currents. But you measure gain by dividing goes-outa by goes-inta, so that’s what I’ll do.

The ET227 needs something like IB = 30 A to switch 100 A at the collector, so a few dozen mA into that resistor rounds off to zilch for its usual driver circuit. FWIW, with IB = 30 A, VBE tops out at 2 V: the resistor carries 150 mA and dissipates 300 mW.

Anyhow, randomly labeling the transistors from A (on the heatsink) through E, then hitching them up to a 1.8 A bench supply with a 33 Ω resistor to the base terminal provided some readings at single-digit collector voltages.

For IB = 72 mA:

A 72 490 6.8
B 73 540 7.4
C 74 480 6.5
D 75 440 5.9
E 76 520 6.8

For IB = 108 mA, with one bumped-knob outlier:

A 108 1220 11.3
B 101 1190 11.8
C 108 1280 11.9
D 108 1170 10.8
E 108 1320 12.2

Although the gain around 1 A comes out slightly higher than while running the motor, it’s in the same ballpark. This is not a high-gain device: it’ll need a driver after the optoisolator to squeeze enough current through the collector.

Eks tried to unload a huge old Tek transistor curve tracer on me that would be ideal for this sort of thing. I’m still not tempted…

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Revlon Tweezers: Bad Spot Welds

Mary bought a pair of Revlon tweezers a while ago, picking a Name Brand to avoid hassles with bottom-dollar crap:

Revlon tweezers - bad spot welds

Revlon tweezers – bad spot welds

Well, that didn’t work.

I contend that the only difference between Name Brands and the bottom-dollar crap I tend to buy is a bit of QC and a lot of price. I’ll agree that’s not strictly true, but it does fit a goodly chunk of the observed data.


I milled a recess into the corner of some scrap plastic to locate the handle end, then arranged a step block to capture the business end:

Revlon tweezers - drilling setup

Revlon tweezers – drilling setup

That setup ensures the holes go into the corresponding spots on both pieces, because I couldn’t figure out how to clamp them together and drill them both at once. I drilled the other piece with its good side up to align the holes; doing it bad side up would offset the holes if they’re not exactly along the center line.

A closer look:

Revlon tweezers - drilling fixture

Revlon tweezers – drilling fixture

Talk about a precarious grip on the workpiece!

I filed the welds flat before drilling, so the pieces lay flat and didn’t distract the drill.


  • Center-drill
  • Drill 2-56 clearance
  • Scuff up mating surfaces with coarse sandpaper
  • Apply epoxy
  • Insert screws
  • Add Loctite
  • Tighten nuts to a snug fit
  • Align jaws
  • Tighten nuts
  • Fine-tune jaw alignment
  • Apply mild clamping force to hold jaws together
  • Wait overnight
  • Saw screws and file flush
  • Done!

The clamping step:

Revlon tweezers - epoxy curing

Revlon tweezers – epoxy curing

Those nicely aligned and ground-to-fit jaws were the reason Mary bought this thing in the first place.

The screw heads look OK, in a techie sort of way:

Revlon tweezers - fixed - front

Revlon tweezers – fixed – front

The backside won’t win any awards:

Revlon tweezers - fixed - rear

Revlon tweezers – fixed – rear

But it won’t come apart ever again!

There’s surely a Revlon warranty covering manufacturing defects, printed on the long-discarded packaging, that requires mailing the parts with the original receipt back to some random address at our own expense.


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Booklet Printing

Most technical papers intended for publication in Refereed Journals have huge margins. When I print them up as pamphlets for E-Z reading in the Comfy Chair, the text becomes an unreadably small block in the middle of the page.

Having tried various simple hacks that don’t work, the best solution so far involves a bit of PostScript magic…

pdfcrop --margins 36 whatever.pdf
pdftops -level3 -origpagesizes whatever-crop.pdf -f 1

Which will emit whatever-crop_book.pdf. Print the odd pages, reinsert the stack, print the even pages, then either fold or slice/bind as appropriate.

The --margins 36 puts a little whitespace around the text, which may be needed to get the text block out of the gutter if you’re binding the booklet. For those documents, --margins "36 0 18 0" may be more useful; note the blanks, not commas. This requires tuning for best picture, depending on the incoming PDF layout.

The -origpagesizes prevents the next step from assuming an incorrect page size. This is definitely necessary, at least in my experience so far.

The -f 1 enlarges the source text to fill the output page, which is the key step making the whole thing work for small incoming page sizes. However, there’s a weird interaction between this and the pdfcrop margins that I haven’t figured out yet; a zero-width incoming margin [may | may not] jam some line ends against the right edge of the output sheet.

That’s all derived from some booklet-printing hints in the Scribus wiki. A working link (as of today, anyhow) for the script:

The R380 emits pages bassackwards for reading, but in the proper order for duplexing: the blank side of the first sheet is on the bottom of the stack, so it becomes the top of the flipped stack, ready to go back into the printer as the first sheet again.

Conversely, the HPLJ1200 produces output in normal reading order, with the blank side of the last sheet on top of the stack: flip and print the back sides in reverse order.