Archive for November, 2013

Dehumidified Processor Crackers

The cracker recipe I’m using produces eight sets of crackers, so this time I added a variety of toppings to see what would work out best:

  • Plain
  • Salt
  • Sugar
  • Cinnamon
  • Garlic
  • Chopped chocolate
  • Chopped cashews
  • Chopped walnuts

Garlic wins over everything else, hands-down, no contest, but the mixture of all the toppings in the bottom of the cooling bowl was wonderful.

The crackers went into a large pot with a bag of desiccant:

Whole wheat crackers with desiccant

Whole wheat crackers with desiccant

It pulled out 30 grams of water while reducing the humidity to 20% overnight; the crackers started out crisp and became really snappy. Definitely the right way to get the job done.

These vaguely resemble the Processor Crackers recipe in Flatbreads & Flavors (Alford & Duguid):

  • 3 C hard whole wheat flour
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 C warm water, more as needed
  • Toppings
  • Water sprayer

I’m using coarse-ground red wheat that doesn’t soak up the water like fine-ground flour. The original recipe called for 1-½ C water, which produced a sticky ball.

  • Blend wheat & salt in food processor
  • Add water in a slow stream until dough firms up
  • Blend another minute
  • Knead half a minute on cutting board
  • Cover
  • Let rest 30 minutes while you prepare toppings

Finely chopped toppings work best; the nuts were too coarse.

  • Preheat oven to 500 °F
  • Divide dough in eight pieces, cover

For each piece of dough:

  • Roll to about 2 mm
  • Put dough on vented pizza pan
  • Cut cracker shapes with pizza cutter
  • Sprinkle topping
  • Spritz with water
  • Put in oven on top rack
  • Punch timer for 3 minutes
  • Prepare next piece
  • Swap pans
  • Iterate

Toss the crackers into a big bowl to cool, sampling as needed.

When crackers cool:

  • Dump into large pot
  • Add desiccant bag & humidity card
  • Cover
  • Snarf combined toppings from bowl
  • Leave crackers to dry overnight

Wonderful!

Memo to Self: Shredded Parmesan cheese would be pretty good…

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NY SAFE Act Magazine Capacity: Legislator Responses

Seeing as how both my NY Senator and Assemblymember voted in favor of the NY Safe Act, I sent each one an email asking for a pointer to the actual wording of the current law.

They both use autoresponders, of course.

From Senator Gipson:

Thank you for taking the time to e-mail me. Your comments and suggestions are very important to me and an integral part of the legislative process.

From Assemblymember Barrett:

Thank you for contacting my office. I greatly appreciate hearing from you as it helps guide my work in Albany as well as here at home.

I apologize for this automated response, but given the volume of e-mails and letters that my office receives each day, we do not always have the resources to answer each one immediately. I want to assure you that I read every letter and email that comes in and take your views into consideration.

If you live in my Assembly district, and have an urgent matter, please call my office at 845-454-1703. Again, thank you for your correspondence; it is a privilege to serve you.

Sincerely,
Didi Barrett
Assemblymember
106th Assembly District

I eventually got an email from Gipson’s office and a call from Barrett’s office with pointers to more information. It’ll take a while for all that to settle down, though.

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NY SAFE Act Magazine Capacity: Legislative Rewrites

I AM NOT A LAWYER.

Some concerted rummaging reveals the source of the enigmatic reference “ch 1/2013 § 58” in the previous post to be part of Senate Bill S2670D-2013 and Assembly Bill A3007D-2013:

  • Passed by the NY Senate: 27 March 2013
  • Passed by the NY Assembly: 28 March 2013
  • Signed by Governor Cuomo: 29 March 2013

This legislation (seems to) change the definition of a large capacity ammunition feeding device by making sections (b) and (c) “not effective”:

S 4. Subdivision b of section 58 of chapter 1 of the laws of 2013 amending the criminal procedure law and other laws relating to suspension and revocation of firearms licenses, is amended to read as follows:

b. The amendments to subdivision 23 of section 265.00 of the penal law made by section thirty-eight of this act shall take effect on the ninetieth day after this act shall have become a law, except that the amendments [made to] DESIGNATING paragraph (a) of subdivision 23 shall take effect immediately; AND PROVIDED FURTHER THAT THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF THE AMENDMENTS ADDING PARAGRAPHS (B) AND (C) TO SUCH SUBDIVISION SHALL BE SUSPENDED AND NOT EFFECTIVE;

Note that the asterisk leading to that footnote in the previous post seemed to apply to only section (b), not (c).

I cannot find the text defining the amendments to section (a), but if that part stands as written, then the definition of a “large capacity ammunition feeding device” reduces to:

23. “Large capacity ammunition feeding device” means a magazine, belt, drum, feed strip, or similar device, that
(a) has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than ten rounds of ammunition

S2670D-2013 / A3007D-2013 redefined unlawful possession based on the actual number of rounds in the ammunition feeding device, rather than its maximum capacity:

S 2. Section 265.37 of the penal law, as added by chapter 1 of the laws of 2013, is amended to read as follows:

S 265.37 Unlawful possession of certain ammunition feeding devices.

It shall be unlawful for a person to knowingly possess an ammunition feeding device [that such person lawfully possessed before the effective date of the chapter of the laws of two thousand thirteen which added this section, that has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept more than seven but less than ten rounds of ammunition,] where such device contains more than seven rounds of ammunition.

If such device containing more than seven rounds of ammunition is possessed within the home of the possessor, the person so possessing the device shall, for a first offense, be guilty of a violation and subject to a fine of two hundred dollars, and for [a second] EACH SUBSEQUENT offense, be guilty of a class B misdemeanor and subject to a fine of two hundred dollars and a term of up to three months imprisonment. If such device containing more than seven rounds of ammunition is possessed in any location other than the home of the possessor, the person so possessing the device shall, for a first offense, be guilty of a class B misdemeanor and subject to a fine of two hundred dollars and a term of up to six months imprisonment, and for [a second] EACH SUBSEQUENT offense, be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

S2670D-2013 / A3007D-2013 does not, however, amend NY PL 265.36, so the penalty for possession of a large capacity ammunition feeding device, as defined in PL 265.00 Section 23, remains intact.

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NY SAFE Act Magazine Capacity: Overvew

The NY SAFE Act limits the capacity of firearm magazines, as defined in NY Penal Law Article 265.00 Section 23  (reformatted for readability):

23. “Large capacity ammunition feeding device” means a magazine, belt, drum, feed strip, or similar device, that
(a) has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than ten rounds of ammunition, or
* (b) contains more than seven rounds of ammunition, or
(c) is obtained after the effective date of the chapter of the laws of two thousand thirteen which amended this subdivision and has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than seven rounds of ammunition; provided, however, that such term does not include an attached tubular device designed to accept, and capable of operating only with, .22 caliber rimfire ammunition or a feeding device that is a curio or relic.

* NB Suspended and NOT Effective per ch 1/2013 § 58, as amended by ch 57/2013 Pt. FF § 4

The official NY SAFE Act website has more information, as does A Guide to the New York Safe Act prepared in September by the NY State Police Office of Division Counsel.

NY PL 265.36 states:

§ 265.36 Unlawful possession of a large capacity ammunition feeding device.

It shall be unlawful for a person to knowingly possess a large capacity ammunition feeding device manufactured before September thirteenth, nineteen hundred ninety-four, and if such person lawfully possessed such large capacity feeding device before the effective date of the chapter of the laws of two thousand thirteen which added this section, that has a capacity of, or that can be readily restored or converted to accept, more than ten rounds of ammunition.

An individual who has a reasonable belief that such device is of such a character that it may lawfully be possessed and who surrenders or lawfully disposes of such device within thirty days of being notified by law enforcement or county licensing officials that such possession is unlawful shall not be guilty of this offense. It shall be a rebuttable presumption that such person knows that such large capacity ammunition feeding device may not be lawfully possessed if he or she has been contacted by law enforcement or county licensing officials and informed that such device may not be lawfully possessed.

Unlawful possession of a large capacity ammunition feeding device is a Class A misdemeanor.

A Class A misdemeanor sets you up for a kilobuck fine or a year in jail.

NY PL 265.37 states:

§ 265.37 Unlawful possession of certain ammunition feeding devices.

It shall be unlawful for a person to knowingly possess an ammunition feeding device where such device contains more than seven rounds of ammunition.

If such device containing more than seven rounds of ammunition is possessed within the home of the possessor, the person so possessing the device shall, for a first offense, be guilty of a violation and subject to a fine of two hundred dollars, and for each subsequent offense, be guilty of a class B misdemeanor and subject to a fine of two hundred dollars and a term of up to three months imprisonment.

If such device containing more than seven rounds of ammunition is possessed in any location other than the home of the possessor, the person so possessing the device shall, for a first offense, be guilty of a class B misdemeanor and subject to a fine of two hundred dollars and a term of up to six months imprisonment, and for each subsequent offense, be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

I AM NOT A LAWYER.

As I understand those sections, a large capacity feeding device, as defined by PL 265.00 Section 23, either:

  • Has a capacity of more than ten rounds or
  • “[C]an be readily restored or converted to accept more than ten rounds”.

It appears to be the intent of the law that an existing large capacity feeding device can be converted to a legal, non-large capacity feeding device by modifying it in such a way that its new 10 round capacity cannot be “readily restored or converted” to the original large capacity.

There is no definition of “readily”.

The NYSP Guide uses a different terminology:

… those who possess these devices have one year from the enactment of the Safe Act to transfer, dispose of, or permanently modify the magazines to a capacity of 10 rounds or less.

There is no definition of “permanently”.

However, there’s that enigmatic asterisk and footnote in PL265.00 Section 23.

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Dummy 9 mm Luger Cartridge: 100 μm Layers

As you might expect, changing the layer thickness to 0.1 mm = 100 μm dramatically improves the appearance of the dummy 9 mm Luger bullet on the left, compared to the 0.25 mm = 250 μm layers on the right:

Dummy 9 mm Luger cartridges - 0.1 mm layer - overview

Dummy 9 mm Luger cartridges – 0.1 mm layer – overview

The inside edge of the translucent skirt around the quartet measured 90 to 110 μm, so the layer height is spot on:

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets - 0.1 mm layer - overhead on platform

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets – 0.1 mm layer – overhead on platform

That required no adjustments to the M2 at all; It Just Works. Admittedly, that’s with a custom platform and firm supports replacing the springs, plus better Z-axis homing, but the overall structure was fine to start with.

I used the same Slic3r settings as before, with the only change being the layer thickness. Letting it pick the layer width might produce better results, but a 0.35 mm nozzle won’t go much narrower than 0.40 mm anyway.

A closer look at the bullet show the thinner layers provide a better rendition of the stretched sphere forming the nose; it’s less pointy than the one assembled from thicker layers:

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets - 0.1 mm layer - side

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets – 0.1 mm layer – side

The nose closes better with thinner layers:

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets - 0.1 mm layer - nose

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets – 0.1 mm layer – nose

None of that really matters for this application, but it’s a useful data point.

The downside is that printing with thinner layers requires more time: a single bullet (of 16) requires 2.2 minutes at 250 μm and (of 4) 9 minutes at 100 μm. The simple ratio of layer thicknesses predicts a factor of 2.5, not 4, but the skirt requires a larger fraction of the total time. The estimated time for a 4×4 array at 100 μm comes out at 5.2 minutes each, a factor of 2.4, which is close enough.

Although 100 μm certainly looks better, it doesn’t really improve anything for most of the blocky stuff I make…

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Dummy 9 mm Luger Cartridge

An interesting project requires a handful of 9 mm Luger (aka 9 mm NATO) dummy cartridges with real brass. You can buy exact form / fit / weight dummies or plastic training rounds, but these will suit my simple needs:

Dummy 9 mm Luger cartridges

Dummy 9 mm Luger cartridges

That’s a snap cap on the left and a real 9 mm Luger cartridge on the right. The holes in the dummy brass indicate that they are absolutely, positively, unquestionably not loaded cartridges.

Start by drilling a 1/8 inch hole in the side of each unfired, primerless case:

Dummy 9 mm Luger - drilling case

Dummy 9 mm Luger – drilling case

I set up the chuck on the rotary table, thinking I might drill three holes in each cartridge, but came to my senses. It’s lined up by eye, flush with the end of the jaws, and the hole is just above the inside of the base.

The solid model has the same overall length and proportion as a 115 grain FMJ bullet, but doesn’t match the proper ogive or base diameter. Basically, I stretched a 9 mm sphere and stuck it atop a slightly tapered base cylinder:

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullet - solid model

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullet – solid model

For reasons I don’t profess to understand, the sphere has a slightly different diameter at its equator than the top of the cylinder, even though they’re both the same BulletOD diameter with the same number of faces. Fortunately, that didn’t affect the final results.

Print up a handful of the things:

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets - on platform

Dummy 9 mm Luger bullets – on platform

The shadow from the flash makes the bases look slightly fatter than they really are.

Using a thinner layer would look better in this orientation. They’d definitely look better if they were split, printed with the long axis parallel to the plate, and glued together, as the grain would run lengthwise; I’m not sure there’s enough room for alignment pins, though.

At this diameter and number of faces, the M2 produces almost perfectly accurate dimensions, so the bullets press-fit just like you’d expect. They’re twisted into a dab of urethane glue inside the brass that foams just enough to hold them place.

Rather than use a real seating die, I deployed a closed chuck on the drill press. The trick is to set the depth stop to produce slightly too-long cartridges, then shim the platform without changing the stop and seat the bullet to the proper depth:

Dummy 9 mm Luger - seating bullet

Dummy 9 mm Luger – seating bullet

The OAL tolerance for various 9 mm Luger cartridges seems to range from 1.08 inch to 1.17 inch, so anything in that range should be fine. I used 1.10 inch.

These are not intended for firing. You could fire them with just a primer (in a non-drilled case) and (maybe) not melt or shatter the plastic, but they’re slightly larger than the nominal 8.82 mm land diameter and won’t obturate or spin-stabilize worth diddly: expect short range and keyholing.

The sectional density is a whopping 0.008, should you keep track of such things: 0.47 gram = 7.2 grain. Note that the US small arms definition of sectional density has units of pound/inch2, not the pound/foot2 you’ll find right next to values computed using inches; the magic number 1/7000 just converts from grains to pounds. In the rest of the (metric) world, it’s entirely different.

The OpenSCAD source code:

// Dummy 9mm Luger bullet
// Ed Nisley KE4ZNU November 2013

//----------------------
// Dimensions

BulletOD = 9.05;			// main diameter
BulletBaseOD = 8.8;			//  ... easy insertion

BulletOAL = 14.0;			// overall length
BaseLength = 8.0;			// cylindrical base length

NoseLength = BulletOAL - BaseLength;

NumSides = 8*4;

//----------------------
// Useful routines

module ShowPegGrid(Space = 10.0,Size = 1.0) {

  Range = floor(50 / Space);

	for (x=[-Range:Range])
	  for (y=[-Range:Range])
		translate([x*Space,y*Space,Size/2])
		  %cube(Size,center=true);
}

//-------------------
// Build it...

ShowPegGrid();

color("Orange")
cylinder(r1=BulletBaseOD/2,r2=BulletOD/2,h=BaseLength,$fn=NumSides);

color("DarkOrange")
translate([0,0,BaseLength])
	resize([0,0,2*NoseLength])
		sphere(BulletOD/2,$fn=NumSides);

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Shagbark Hickory Nut Season

Mary managed to outcompete the local squirrels to the tune of 10 pounds of Shagbark Hickory nuts, which we’ve been enjoying after supper. The thickly armored nuts shrug off ordinary nutcrackers, so we deploy heavy weaponry: good old 10WR Vise-Grip pliers:

Cracking nickory nuts with a Vise-Grip

Cracking nickory nuts with a Vise-Grip

She describes the process better than I; for what it’s worth, I work on one nut at a time. We both celebrate when a shell releases its nut with minimal damage; most often, we extract fragments into a pile like the one shown. I can process half a dozen nuts before deciding I’ve had enough.

I’d be in favor of a genetic modification producing a fluorescent green shell, because overlooking a minute piece of shell in that pile of nutmeat is a Very Bad Thing…

Some Vise-Grip history may be of interest.

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